To illustrate the dramatic effect of combining a larger apparent field
(yielding greater deep sky details) with smaller exit pupils (yielding fainter
stars with darker sky background) we propose the "Majesty Factor". We define it
simply as the cube of the ratio of any two different apparent field eyepieces
having the same field stop diameters (__same true field__). Examples:

^{3}= 2.92 "M.F." or (70°/50°)

^{3}= 2.74 "M.F." or (100°/50°)

^{3}= 8 "M.F."

After showing the first Ethos 13mm at a number of events since April 2007, we can safely conclude it brings the observing experience to a new level. This is based solely on user's reactions to views of familiar objects, not on any prejudgments, publicity or hype on our part. While we were quite confident of success, we wanted, and still want, to explore all the ramifications of what a sharp 100° field really represents.

Right after NEAF in April, Rodger Gordon, the acknowledged "eyepiece junkie" of all time, wrote me "Definitely the finest wide-angle eyepiece I've ever seen. If God is an astronomer, this is the wide-angle eyepiece he'd choose. You can quote me." Thanks, Rodger. I waited until now to avoid "priming the pump", so to speak before quoting your unbridled enthusiasm publicly.

For some time, I've been pondering just why the response has been so overwhelmingly positive. And if I really understand why, is it possible to quantify? My views of the Double Cluster at Stellafane pointed the way.

The 1991 article I wrote for *Sky and Telescope *on magnification
provides the key. A major conclusion for low power states: "The best view occurs
with the highest power that comfortably includes the target object. Higher
powers darken the background sky, reveal fainter stars and show more detail.
The resulting smaller exit pupil also minimizes the effects of eyesight
defects."

Considering the potential of Ethos, let me posit a more general conclusion.

For deep sky viewing of star fields, open and
globular clusters, nebulae and galaxies, choose the *highest* power that frames
the subject, so long as the sky background does not reach black, and the
atmosphere does not degrade the resolution. The smaller exit pupils permit
a darker sky background which achieves greater contrast against the fixed
brightness of stars, while the greater magnification reveals more structural
details on extended objects. Using eyepieces with larger apparent
fields maximizes the viewing experience.

The result is an increase in what I would call the * Majesty Factor, the nexus of
contrast, power and field*.

It's clear that the largest possible *apparent* field for a given *true* field
yields the most magnification for greater resolution, with a darker sky background
for more contrast as a result of the smaller exit pupil. I believe this combination
of contrast, power and field causes the typical "wow" reaction
— the *Majesty Factor*. I think Tom Trusock
said it most succinctly in his Starfest (Canada) report: "The same true field at
higher magnification means that you'll see blacker skies and more detail."
Dennis di Cicco in his 5-star review of Ethos in his October 2007 *Sky & Telescope*
review noted something similar: "Observing with the 12-inch scope, I typically bounce
between a wide-field eyepiece for star-hopping and a high-power one for
detailed views. But the Ethos gave me both. The field was large enough to
star-hop, and the magnification was high enough to bring out faint stars and
resolve details in galaxies and star clusters." (He coincidently also
illustrated field sizes using the Double Cluster.)

**apparent field**: perceived span of sky seen through eyepiece (without telescope). Not used in*true field*(see) calculation.**exit pupil**: image of objective formed by eyepiece. Location where full apparent field is seen.**f/#**: a ratio that describes the relation between the aperture and focal length of the telescope -- important for photography**field stop**: ring inside the eyepiece barrel that limits true and apparent field size**focal length**: effective distance from entrance of an optical system to focal point**magnification**: relative change in angular size of object**true field**: span of sky seen through telescope/eyepiece combination

Let's try to quantify the so-called *Majesty Factor*. While we cannot quantify the majesty of a great
symphony, work of art or edifice, I think a meaningful *Majesty Factor* is
quantifiable for those great deep sky views. Here's how:

Let's consider a range of possible eyepieces with apparent fields of 50°, 60°, 68°, 82° and 100°. Now let's pick an object, (like the Double Cluster) and let's say it's properly framed in the field of a 50° Plössl with a 26-mm focal length in an f/4 telescope so the exit pupil = 6.5-mm. Let's arbitrarily assign a factor of 1 to the power (magnification) of this telescope and a factor of 1 to represent the contrast for the 6.5-mm exit pupil. Therefore, for the given true field:

**Majesty Factor**=

**1**(power factor) x

**1**(contrast factor) =

**1**

Now let's replace
the Plössl with a 100° (apparent field) Ethos with a 13-mm focal length. This
yields the *same true field *of view at twice the power with twice the
apparent field and half the exit pupil. The 3.2-mm exit pupil is only ¼ the
area of 6.5-mm, so the sky background darkens by a factor of **4** (contrast factor).
The magnification power factor yields twice the detail or resolution. Therefore:

**2**(power factor) x

**4**(contrast factor) =

**8**x

**Majesty Factor**

Working out the math for all the apparent fields listed above, we have:

*Majesty Factor*for Various Apparent Fields for Eyepieces Yielding Same True Field

Apparent Field (°) | Power Factor | Contrast Factor | Majesty Factor | |||
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

Plössl | 50 | 1.00 |
x |
1.00 |
= |
1.00 |

Panoptic | 68 | 1.36 |
x |
1.85 |
= |
2.52 |

Delos | 72 | 1.44 |
x |
2.07 |
= |
3.00 |

Nagler | 82 | 1.64 |
x |
2.69 |
= |
4.41 |

Ethos | 100 | 2.00 |
x |
4.00 |
= |
8.00 |

A simple rule of thumb is that for any two eyepieces having the same true
field of view, the *Majesty Factor* equals the cube of their apparent field
ratios. Example is (**100**°/**70**°)^{3}=**2.92**.